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Practice saying the words

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strain — напряжение

break ups – расставания

death, divorce – смерть, развод

poverty, unemployment — бедность, безработица

heavy drinking, insufficient sleep – алкоголизм, недосыпание

project deadlines – сроки проекта

acute, short-term – острый, кратковременный

stressor — стрессор

behavior – поведение

habits – привычки

cardiovascular – сердечнососудистые

cancer – рак

upper respiratory tract infection – инфекции верхних дыхательных путей

hypertension – гипертония

digestive system,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_(biology) — cite_note-55 chronic fatigue syndrome – ЖКТ, синдром хронической усталости

depression, functional somatic syndromes – депрессия, соматические синдромы

forlornness — уныние

sin – грех

suicide — самоубийство

reduce – снизить, уменьшить

support — поддержка

 

Read and translate the text

Stress

The word “stress” had been in use in physics to refer to the internal distribution of a force exerted on a material body, resulting in strain. In the 1920s and 30s, biological and psychological circles occasionally used the term to refer to a mental strain or to a harmful environmental agent that could cause illnesses.

  In 2015 the American Psychological Association established the three leading sources of stress: money, family responsibility, and work. Social issues can also cause stress, such as relationship conflict, or break ups, and major events such as birth and death, marriage, and divorce. Life experiences such as poverty, unemployment, heavy drinking,or insufficient sleep can also cause stress. Students and workers may face performance pressure stress from exams and project deadlines.

Stress is the bodys method of reacting to a challenge. There are physiological and psychological stresses. Physiological stress represents a wide range of physical responses that occur as a direct effect of a stressor causing an upset in the homeostasis of the body.

There are two types of stress. Acute stress is short-term and chronic or long-term stress is just prolonged stress.

Theories of the stress–illness link suggest that both acute and chronic stress can cause illness. According to these studies, both acute and chronic stress can lead to changes in behavior and physiology. Behavioral changes can include smoking, changes in eating habits and physical activity. Physiological changes can include these changes: the immune system may be heavily influenced by stress. The proposed imbalance leads to some forms of immune hypersensitivity, while also increasing risk of some illnesses associated with decreased immune system function, such as infection and cancer.

Some studies have observed increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection during chronic life stress. A link has been suggested between chronic stress and cardiovascular disease. Stress appears to play a role in hypertension. More generally, prenatal life, infancy, childhood, and adolescence are critical periods in which the vulnerability to stressors is particularly high. Stress may contribute to various psychosomatic disorders, such as general trouble with the digestive system, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_(biology) — cite_note-55 chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, and functional somatic syndromes.

There are some methods to control and reduce stress: do not leave tasks for the last minute, do things you like, exercise, do breathing routines – deep and rhythmic breathing, go out with friends, and take a break. Remember that forlornness or depression is a sin that may lead to a suicide. To be in a good mood, take more vitamins A, C, E in stressful periods of life. Social support helps to reduce stress but even more if the support is from a loved one.

  Answer the questions to the text

1. What is stress?

2. Name the three leading sources of stress.

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3. Do you know that forlornness or depression is a sin?

4. What are the behavioral changes?

5. Tell the class about physiological changes caused by stress.

6. What diseases may appear during chronic life stress?

7. Name some methods to control and reduce stress.

Complete the sentences using the words in the box. 

acute and chronic, cause, behavior disease, suicide, strain

 

1. The word “stress” had long been in use in physics to refer to the internal distribution of a force exerted on a material body, resulting in ______.

2. Social issues can also _________ stress.

3. Theories of the stress–illness link suggest that both ________stress can cause illness.

4. Both acute and chronic stress can lead to changes in________ and in physiology.

5. A link has been suggested between chronic stress and cardiovascular ______.

6. Remember that forlornness or depression is a sin that may lead to a ______

 

 

Тема 8.7. Useful and Harmful Habits / Полезные и вредные привычки

Level A

Write and learn. Запишите и выучите: Practice saying the words. Произнесите:  

                                                                

1. early[‘ә:li] – рано                           1. Christians[‘krist∫iәnz] — христиане
2. healthy[‘helθi]– здоровый          2. idle talk [aidl to:k] –пустословие
3.realize [riә‘laiz] — осознавать          3. denounce [di‘nauns] – осуждать
4.harmful [‘hΛmful] – вредный       4.spiritual[‘spirit∫uәl] — духовный
5. contrary[‘kontrәri] — встречный 5.moderate[‘modәreit] – умеренный                                                                                                                                                                                                        
6. on time [on taim] – вовремя            6. overeating[ouvә’ri:tiŋ]- переедание
7. huge [‘hju:d ] – огромный         7.grow good thoughts[grou gu:d θo:ts] —                                                                                      — взращивать благие помыслы                                                                                                             
8. appear[ә‘piә ] – появляться                     8.create[kri’eit] – создавать 9. mood [‘mu:d] — настроение                                  
10. ourselves[auә’selves] – сами 9. the evil of the world [ðә i:vl of ðә wo:ld]-                                                                                           — зло этого мира
11.change [t∫eind]– изменить                              10. soul[soul] — душа                                                             12.mix[miks]-смешивать  13. repeat [ri’pi:t] — повторять                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

          

Read and translate the text / Прочитайте и переведите текст.

                                                       Useful Habits

1. Early to bed, early to rise makes people healthy, wealthy and wise.” It is nice to realize that you have time to do so many things!

2. Don’t say “tomorrow” if you can do it today. Try to do everything on time. Huge problems appear because of many tiny things are not done on time.

3. Read books. It is a good habit to fill the day with some new content.

4. Keep away from idle talk. Usually a person starts to speak quickly and emotionally when he/she denounces someone.

5. Be moderate in eating. Moderation in eating helps in spiritual life. Aggression starts with overeating.

6. Grow good thoughts. We need a special art to transform the negative things into positive ones. If we understand and forgive another person in a conflict situation, we both will benefit.

7. Use even the contrary winds. We create our mood by ourselves. We can’t change the rainy weather. We “change” ourselves: we put on a raincoat and we take an umbrella. Fish swims in salty water, but fish isn’t salty itself. So a Christian person should not mix with the evil of the world.

8. Every evening analyze the day. At the end of the day we should analyze our bad thoughts, words and acts so that we don’t repeat our own mistakes again and again. By analyzing a Christian person keeps the soul healthy every day.

  Read the questions in A, choose and read the correct answers in B. / Прочитайте вопрос в А, выберите и прочитайте ответ в В.

A B
1. Why should we try to do everything on time? 2. Why is it useful to get up early? 3. Why should we keep away from idle talk? 4. Why do we need a special art to transform the negative into positive? a) It is nice to realize that you have time to do so many things! b) Because we should not denounce anyone. c)Huge problems appear because of many tiny things are not done on time. d) It will be only positive that we can get in return.

Level B


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