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THEORETICALFUNDAMENTALS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLES

INSTRUMENTS AND PERFORMING ARTS IN UZBEKISTAN

BotirovaKhilola Tursunbaevna[1]1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Art Studies, AndijanState University

Annotation: This article describes thescientific work of composers and creators, the musical views of the greatthinkers of the East, the attention and recognition of music and art schools,the views of scholars on the performing arts. The theory of music, which hasbeen studied by musicologists for years, and the factors that are important inthe development of performance were also discussed.

Keywords: art, performance, legend, instrument,music, ability, performance, creator, composer.

Introduction. Among all the musical arts inour lives, the art of music has accompanied the way of life of people for manycenturies and it is an art form that reflects the thoughts, dreams and hopes ofthe people, their labor activities, feelings and experiences. When we look atour historical sources, there is information that the art of performance didnot enter our lives yesterday or today, but the life of a person also enteredour legends and myths under the performance of musical melodies on the flute.The subject of music is covered in more hadiths. Various scientific studieshave shown that there are two main reasons for resistance to music. Each causecorresponds to a specific historical period and is associated withpolitical-ideological as well as cultural development.

The first resistance to musicdates back to the XII-XIII centuries. Although Islam did not opposeChristianity, Judaism, or Zoroastrianism, it waged a ruthless struggle againstits internal enemies, paganism and polytheism. Theseelements are reflected in the works (before the introduction ofIslam) in materials such as sound, words and images. The encyclopedic scholarsof the Brotherhood of Sufism (X century) also testified to thereasons for the ban on music [1; 271-272]. Immoral musicians were also opposedby major figures in the art of music. Alisher Navoi, in turn, gave aworthy description of this category of musicians in his own words [2; 29]

In this regard, one of the rulesof the law is to recite the Holy Quran, the holy book of the Uzbek people.

The muezzins of the adhan (Sufis)tried to explain the issues of recitation in detail in medieval prose sources.As we all know, reading the Quran has become an art due to the strictobservance of the rules of recitation.

One of the praiseworthy aspects ofthis was that the ability to memorize and the ability to read with reading wereconsidered to be one of the most essential aspects and had proven themselves inpractice. When it comes to recitation, it is appropriate to mention the name ofAbdul Qadir Maraghi.

There is also information inmedieval scientific sources that he used certain maqom lads to read the Quran.Maqom lads were also used to say the adhan. In one of the Arab mosques, forexample, the adhan was called every day using different maqom lads, such asUshshak, Rost, Segoh, and Chorgoh.

Just as the religious and secularsciences in our lives are intertwined, the essence of our performing arts is atestament to how complex the sciences are in these aspects alone. It is not invain that in this sense, the first President of the Republic I.A. Karimov said:We value and respect the religion of Islam, the sacred religion of ourancestors, and appreciate its role and influence in strengthening the faith andhuman qualities in the spiritual world of mankind.1

We can also see that our learningprocess is continuously linked to each other like a chain. Music is instilledin the hearts of children by the lullaby of mother, after which they arebrought up in music lessons in preschool institutions, and in secondary schoolsthey have theoretical and practical acquaintance with music in music lessonsand acquire excellent knowledge and skills in music. Therefore, it is noexaggeration to say that the process of continuous education serves as a basisfor a person to become a perfect human being.

Literature review. It is impossible to dwellon the performing arts without substantiating the paths traversed by our greatancestors. One of the great figures of Oriental music, Farobi (pseudonym, fullname Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Uzlug Tarhan Farobi) is the greatest representativeof medieval Eastern music culture. According to sources he was a prolificcomposer and master of the harp, tanbur, gijjak (violin), nay (flute) andzither instruments. Farobi was closely acquainted with the musical culture ofdifferent peoples living in the

Middle and Middle East due to his sharp taste andremarkable musical ability. In the formation of his musical views, the musicalheritage of the peoples of Central Asia and Iran in particular had a greatinfluence.The scientific and practical aspects of the musical heritage of thesepeoples are well documented in Farobis works.

According to our teacher ZokirjonAripovs book Oriental Source Studies, Mahmud Hafni did a good jobas one of the organizers of the study of musical treatises in Arabic written inthe Middle Ages. He was instrumental in the publication of critical texts ofFarobis Great Music Book and wrote introductions to them. `MahmoudHafni, in collaboration with the German orientalist E. Neubauer, translated andpublished the musical part of Farbis Book of Iqqa and Ibn Sinas Book ofHealing into German. Among E. Neubauers scientific works on medieval musicaltreatises, Farobis work on the theory of iqa was highly valued ”[4; 5].

In one of the legends, there arelegends that Farobi sang and confused people, sometimes upset the enthusiasticpeople, and sometimes put the smart ones to sleep and amazed the fans. Inscience, he left an indelible mark on the history of musicology, creating worksof universal significance.

Farobi has written many works onmusic. Sources include his “Classification of Sciences” (“Ihsa alUlum”), “TheGreat Book of Music” (“Kitab al musiqa al-kabir”), “Introduction to Music”(“Mad-hal fi-lmusiqa”), “Rhythms classification book ”(“ Kitab ixsa al-iko ”)and many other works. Some of these works are kept as manuscripts in variouslibraries around the world. Farobis two major works of music have been widelyintroduced into modern science. They are the music section of theClassification of Sciences and the Big Music Book.

Farobi gives a broad and perfectaccount of each of the above-mentioned categories of science and authorship.The first concept of science begins with the study of the musical and physicalproperties of sound. Sound is defined as a physical phenomenon that resultsfrom the vibration of any hard or soft body. The acoustic properties of sound,that is, the relationship between the volume of the vibrating body and thepitch of the sound, are explained in the example of various musicalinstruments, and the factors for expressing their quantities in a mathematicalstyle are explained. Farobi wrote. “Songs are compared to poems. In poetry, theprimary element is the letters, and just as the vatad is the combination oflines and bytes, so the structure of the melody has primary and secondaryelements from which the melody compares to the poem. The only thing that can beused as a letter in poetry is naghmas or melodies”

So, the concept that comes fromsound is nagma (musical sound, tone, curtain). Farobi discusses the causes oflow-pitched melodies, the factors of proportionality, and the effects ofemotion through these characteristics (Farobi, The Great Book of Music, Kohira,published in 1967). The interval category is one of the central concepts ofscience. Because the curtain still can’t be a separate melody piece by itself.

It is impossible not to look atthe work of our creative master Borbad, who left an indelible mark on theperformance clock with his fascinating immortal masterpieces. The greatthinker, the first professional musicologist in the East, composer, hafiz, poetand artist, Borbad was born in Merv in 585. The future composer was educated inmadrassas in Arab and non-Arab countries. The composers works such asNavruz buzrug, Gulzor, Sabzi bahor,Rohi gul, Polizbon directly reflect the beauty ofnature. He described the seven days of the week and created a collection ofmelodies and songs dedicated to the thirtieth day of the month. Many of themelodies and songs composed by the great composer Borbad have survivedunchanged to our time and have been sung by the people and copied from book tobook.

Abu Ali ibn Sino, SafiuddinUrmavi, Haji Abdulkadir Maraghi, Abdurahman Jami, Najmiddin Kavkabi, DarveshAli Changi and the above-mentioned great thinkers and scholars have written notonly scientific collections, but also scientific textbooks and it is difficultto reach the end of their works, because the untranslated cases of the workswritten by our thinkers are still present today. It is no exaggeration to saythat the performance skills of our aforementioned scholars have assessed thedifficulty levels of musicology.

In this regard, the contributionsof our scholars and thinkers to the performing arts are at the heart of todaysimmortal musical masterpieces. There are such expressions as white and black,low and high, night and day, good and bad, negative and positive, and of coursethere is an opportunity to differentiate and choose the best.

Even before the independence ofour independent Uzbekistan, we know from historical sources that yourscientists did not stop creating in the science of music. The works are in linewith the way of life of the people, and the works that are specific andappropriate to the requirements of the time are still in the hearts oflisteners, without losing their place in the hearts of their listeners. As weturn the pages of history, we are reminded of the words of the first PresidentIA Karimov: The future of a nation with high spirituality is great.

Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur(1483-1530) admits in the educational-methodical complex History ofPerforming Arts of R. Toshmatova that Alisher Navoi in his time helpedmany oud players, pipers, drummers, dustmen to show their talents, inBoburnoma the Uzbek people we may see information that the names ofthe performers of the instruments are mentioned. According to Babur, “Masterssuch as Ustad-kul Muhammad Shaibani and Hussein Uddi gained great fame and greatsuccess with the direct help and patronage of Bek (Navoi)” [5.82-83].

Today, the name of the founder ofUzbek art, playwright, composer, teacher, public figure H.H.Niyoziy isassociated with the creation of his first songs in modern interpretation, suchas We are workers, Long live the Council, Heyworkers, Workers wake up, Working grandfather.Hamzas multifaceted creative and pedagogical activity confirms that he playedan important role in the formation and development of the Uzbek school ofperforming instruments.

Mulla Tuychi Tashmuhammedov,Ilhomjon (dutarchi), Karimbek khoja (gijjakchi), Shobrot (tanburchi),Ilyoskhoja (changchi) and their students: Yunus Rajabiy and Risqi Rajabiy,Ilhomjon Ikramov (gijjakchi composer), Poqalachi composer ), Abdusaoat Vahobov(dutar player), Hafizlar Shoqosim, Shoolim, Shoakbar Shojalilov renderedincomparable service.

Research Methodology. It is nosecret that the scientific works of composers and creators have been studiedover the years, but the process of their study is slow. What is the reason forthis? The question naturally arises. Time? Or our fast-paced life? Roughlyspeaking, scientific research carried out blindly under the motto of the finishline. It is true that these words are deeply ingrained in the human heart, butthe fact that instead of the historical processes that most of our young peopleneed to know in their lives today, there is light-hearted world music shakesthe human heart.

President Sh.M.Mirziyoev in hisbook Rule of law and ensuring human interests — a guarantee of thecountrys development and peoples well-being noted the following speechof the First President on December 8, 1992 at the historic session of theSupreme Soviet. “For the last seventy years, we have lived in a state ofdependence and worship. We have always considered the state to be the owner ofthe country, of all its wealth. This is a fundamental turning point in theConstitution. That is, our constitutional law includes an article that statesthat the state, its agencies and officials are accountable to society andcitizens.

Man, his life, liberty, dignityand other inalienable rights and freedoms are now considered sacred andguaranteed by the state ”[6; 5].

It is no exaggeration to say thatthe comprehensive reforms carried out by our President are bearing fruit today.However, in response to executive discipline, we can all achieve the intendedgoal quickly and effectively only if we perform the above-mentioned tasks.

The purpose of the Resolution of PresidentSh.M.Mirziyoev On measures to develop the field of culture and artdated May 31, 2017 was as follows: we have witnessed that values embrace suchlofty goals as educating in the spirit of love and devotion to the motherland.This decision has affected all areas of art. On August 3, 2017, the Presidentmet with the intelligentsia of the country on the topic Development ofliterature and art, culture a solid foundation for raising the spiritual worldof our people. Some negative aspects, an objective and criticalassessment of the impact on the ife of society, the current problems and theirsolutions, an in-depth analysis of the activities of creative associations, theMinistry of Culture and its affiliates and organizations, the role ofintellectuals in society today, the reform process increased.

We can see in the success that this decision isgradually being resolved. Now lets just look at our successes and finallyanalyze our shortcomings and problems. It is no exaggeration to say that thisdraft resolution has also had an impact on the performing arts, and a lot ofwork has been done and is being done to pay attention to our forgotten statusart, to pay attention to composition and composition. Why does this processsuffer from successes and failures in the performing arts? The questionnaturally arises. It is difficult to explain the solution without a deeperanalytical approach to this issue. As we all know, it takes a lot of hard workand effort to perform a sozda. It is not in vain that we say that 1% talent is99% labor. Analyzing these words, in order to sing a small work on a 2-stringedinstrument, it is necessary to know how to hold the word, to know the locationof the sounds in it, to know the low and high register position of theinstrument, and then to work on the work. No matter how complicated theprocess, now that the performer has mastered that process, he will stopsomewhere instead of improving his skills unless he practices the same instrumentevery day. This is just the beginning of what we are talking about. At a timewhen the above-mentioned master thinkers and scientists are musicians,composers, singers and musicologists at the same time, is a single exerciseenough for the younger generation to reach this level?

There is a beautiful saying among our people: Astudent who does not see a teacher walks to every position, yes ……indeed, a student who follows the path shown by the teacher has never beenless. It is not in vain that we say that the disciple has passed through themaster ”[7, 72].

Our President Sh.M.Mirziyoyev quoted the followingwords in his book Together we will build a free and prosperous,democratic state of Uzbekistan. It is the people who brought us up. Whoshould we consult with first of all with our people. Then our people will agreewith us. If the people agree, our work will be fruitful and blessed. If thepeople are pleased with us, the Creator will be pleased with us.

Analysis and results. If we make the most of everyminute we spend, we will surely achieve our goal. What tasks can our psycheperform and help us? We can answer this question as follows: no matter howbeautiful and alert our psyche is, it is safe to say that it will help us toovercome and fulfill all the tasks before us with a strong will.

If an educator wants to bring up aperson in all respects, that is, he has to study in all respects in order tobring up a perfect person. To do this, it is impossible to know the mentalcharacteristics of students by conducting at least simple and easy-to-performpractical exercises in the subject of psychology without an indepth study oftheoretical problems.

If the path of social developmentfor our old and eternally young country is correctly understood and logicallyanalyzed, our people will use ethnopsychological knowledge in the process ofeducation and upbringing, psychologically influence fighters in militarycampaigns, instill in them a sense of confidence and faith, apply verbal andnonverbal cues It is an indisputable fact that the works have been researchedfrom the creative products of such great scholars as Farobi and Khorezmi to the1930s.

Psychology has been taught inhigher education in Uzbekistan since 1928 (at the same time, LS Vygotskyspublic lectures in Central Asia and Uzbekistan were undoubtedly a key factor inaccelerating this process).

In the textbook of musicpsychology, G. Kadyrov justified the extent to which psychology can have animpact on the performing arts through the same process.

As early as the Middle Ages, thegreat thinkers of the East studied musical psychology, examples of theinfluence of music on the heart, mood and the human body: Farobis GreatBook of Music and other works, Ibn Sinas Book of Healing,Book of Salvation, Encyclopedia Abdurahman Jamiys bookRisolai musiqa aresome of them.

The opinions expressed by ourscholars can confirm that the scholars of world music culture have also broughtup teachings that are almost semantically close to each other in the process ofeducation. Even in church music, the clergy issued decrees stating thatschoolteachers should consider church singing as a compulsory subject: “Youshould set up“ schools ”in your own homes. The commandments said, So thatour children may learn to read and write as well as sing, and in the future toteach children that this work is Gods will … [8; 76].

As mentioned above, where there issuccess, there are also shortcomings. What exactly do we mean by shortcomings?Of course, it is a pity that today the culture of listening to our youth andthe culture of performance are light. What is the reason for this? At a timewhen all the conditions are being created by our President, how do we respond?Lets take a look at today and yesterday.

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The high level of attention andrecognition in music and art schools can also be seen in the ongoing reforms,which are one of the highest goals to bring them to the world stage. Lets takea look at the life of developed countries together. The great world composerssuch as Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, Chopin, List, Tchaikovsky have entered theworld books and the hearts of the listeners with their works in textbooks. Ofcourse, the reason for reaching this level is the teachers teachings and thefirst lessons he learned from his youth in music schools.

As we study the work of eachperformer and artist, we can learn from the books left by our scholars, fromthe works of our great artists, that his father or mother felt his interest inmusic and took him to a teacher, who helped him to study at a music school. Ifthe conditions for education in the family are not created, both the aspirationand the love for creativity will slowly fade away. But at the same time, it isunfortunate that some of our listeners are not only impatient to listen to ourworld classical music, but also to listen to it. We should be glad to see ouryoung performers going to music and art schools, because he is learning tospend his free time productively from a young age. Feeling the complexity ofplaying the instrument, he continues to work hard, showing his interest andaffection for the word in his performance skills. It is no exaggeration to saythat this is the efforts of parents who are thinking about the future of theirchild in the family.

Conclusions and Recommendations. Based on theabove considerations, we consider it appropriate to recommend the followingproposals:

1.                    Creation of new textbooks based on the analysis of textbooks ofsecondary schools and specialized art schools, used in the simplification,practice, improvement of performance skills.

2.                    Achieve curricula and syllabi, including non-duplication oftopics in specialized art schools and academic lyceums, and practical analysisbased on that knowledge.

3.                    Increasing the hours of music science in educationalinstitutions, modern equipment of educational laboratories, organization ofclubs based on the interests of students. Strengthening the process ofpreparation for international and local competitions.

4.                    Organization of final state examinations in general educationschools and specialized art schools and academic lyceums, state attestationexaminations in a completely new content and form, taking into account thequalification requirements.

5.                    To develop an action plan for the implementation of the reformsof President Sh. Mirziyoyev and to ensure that the graduates of secondaryschools will demonstrate their performance skills in the musical instrument.

6.                    Development of a diagram of the level of regular provision ofstudents with Uzbek and foreign literature on music.

7.                    Establish a forecast for the analysis of the level of coverage ofUzbek and foreign literature by students.

Taking into account all theabove-mentioned achievements and shortcomings, we can achieve our goal only ifwe take a critical approach to our chosen profession. It is obvious that if weignore our shortcomings only when we see our achievements, we will bring ourfuture to the brink of brightness rather than brightness. Therefore, as long aswe all approach the precious power with devotion to our profession, the nextgeneration will agree with us.

References

[1.] Musical aesthetics of the Oriental countries.M., 1967 C271-272.

[2.] Navoiy A. Mahbub ul-qulub. T., 1970y. 29-b.

[3.] Karimov I.A. we build our future with our ownhands. Volume 7 “Uzbekistan”, T., 1999. 300-b.

[4.] Zokirjon Oripov. Oriental Source Studies (X-XIcenturies) T., 2008y. 5-b.

[5.] Toshmatova R.A. History of PerformingArts T., 2011. 82-83-72-b.

[6.] Mirziyoev Sh.M. The rule of law and theprotection of human interests are the key to the development of the country andthe well-being of the people. T., Uzbekistan 2017y. 5-b.

[7.] Toshmatova R.A. History of PerformingArts T., 2011. 72-b.

[8.] Nosirov Yu.M. History of Russian music (IX-XVIIIcenturies) Textbook for students of music universities. T., 2009y. 76-b.

[9.] Burno M.E. Taoric self-expression therapy.Monograph. M.E. Burno. -M.: Medicine, 1999. — 364 p.

[10.]Botirova Xilola Tursunbaevna,The place of musicin upbringing of young people.Science and education. Article DOI: https://doi.org/10.36713/epra6742https://eprajournals.com/IJCM/article/4915

[11.]TURSUNBAEVNA, Botirova Xilola. COOPERATION OFTEACHER AND STUDENT ON MUSIC WORK. Erudio Journal of Educational Innovation,[S.l.], v. 7, n. 1, p. 36-47, apr. 2020. ISSN 2302-884X. Available at:<https://erudio.ub.ac.id/index.php/erudio/article/view/341>. Dateaccessed: 27 may 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.18551/erudio.7-1.3.

[12.]Tursunbaevna, B. K. (2019). SAMPLES OF ORAL FOLKART. International Journal of Advanced

Science                and         Technology, 28(15),            559        —               568. Retrieved      from http://sersc.org/journals/index.php/IJAST/article/view/1812

[13.]Khilola Tursunbaevna Botirova. EPRAInternational Journal of Environmental Economics, Commerce and EducationalManagement. PERFORMANCE AND ART. DOI: 10.36713/epra0414 |ISI I.F Value:0.815|SJIF Impact Factor (2021): 7.743 ISSN: 2348 – 814X Volume: 8 | Issue: 5 |May 2021

[14.]Tursunbaevna, Botirova K. The Importanceof Aesthetic Education in the Formation of Performance and Creative Skills ofStudents in Music Lessons in Secondary Schools. JournalNX,vol. 7, no. 05, 2021, pp. 69-72, doi:10.17605/OSF.IO/9CQSF.

[15.]Botirova Khilola Tursunbaevna. A NEW APPROACH TOVOCAL-CHORAL SKILLS. ACADEMICIA:

An International Multidisciplinary Research Journal Year: 2021, Volume : 11, Issue : 4 First page : ( 1638) Last page : ( 1654) OnlineISSN : 2249-7137. Article DOI : 10.5958/2249-7137.2021.01288.X

[16.]Botirova.X. The practice of applying pedagogicaltechnologies in the learning process to playing the Chang instrument Societyand innovations Journal home page: https://inscience.uz/index.php/socinov/index

2181-1415/© 2021 in Science LLC.  This is anopen access article under the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.ru)

[17.]Botirova Xilola Tursunbaevna. (2021). TEACHERAND STUDENT WORKING IN COLLABORATION ON MUSIC. CENTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF ARTS AND DESIGN, 2(4),26-38. Retrieved from https://cajad.centralasianstudies.org/index.php/CAJAD/article/view/55

[18.]Botirova Xilola Tursunbaevna 2020. Methods forimproving thoretical knowledge of music of elementary school students . International Journal on Integrated Education.3, 4 (Apr. 2020), 4-

10. DOI:https://doi.org/10.31149/ijie.v3i4.335.

[19.]@inproceedings{Tursunbaevna2021TEACHERAS, title={TEACHERAND STUDENT WORKING IN COLLABORATION ON MUSIC}, author={Botirova Xilola Tursunbaevna},year={2021} }

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[23.] Топилина Н.В. Эстетическое воспитаниешкольников как актуальная проблема нашего времини // Инновационная наука. — №4.2015. – С. 146-148.

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[25.]Ходжабаев А.Р., Хусанов И. Касбий таълим методологияси. Тошкент.«Фан ва технология», 2007 й. [26.]И.Грубер. Всеобщая история музыки. «Музгиз»,М., 1965, с.4 [27.] Санъатшунослик кутубхонаси. Инв.№1005, Т., 2004, 14-б.


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